Jewish Texts

Deuteronomy 6:4–The Shema

While the Shema has been seen as a declaration of absolute monotheism, it has other meanings in its biblical and liturgical contexts.

The Deuteronomic History

A remarkable discovery with eternal repercussions

The Editing of the Talmud

How the sages' debates across many generations became the monumental works known as the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds

The Latter Prophets

The literary prophets had a difficult and often unpopular mission.

Contemporary Jews and Halakhah

Jews of different stripes differ greatly with respect to their assessment of the role Jewish law should play today—and each camp has much to learn from the others.

The Way of the Gentiles

The prohibition against non-Jewish practices, might relate to the practices of ancient Egypt, Canaan or the social and philosophical ways of non-Jews today.

Halakhah in Conservative Judaism

"Tradition and change" is the Conservative movement's motto, balancing adherence to Jewish law with a willingness to introduce major innovations.

Biblical and Rabbinic Attitudes Toward Non-Jews

Early Jewish texts affirmed the universal fraternity of humankind, while asserting the importance of Jewish distinctiveness.

Methods of Midrash

How this genre gleans deep meaning from the Torah's text

The Mekhilta

Halakhic Midrash on Exodus.

The Non-Jew in Jewish Law

Rabbinic authorities have used different arguments to redress inequities in the way halakhah treats non-Jews.

Reconstructionist Judaism & Halacha

Reconstructionists see Jewish law as no longer viable, but still a resource to be taken seriously.