Pirates and plague loomed, and prized possessions sold for a pittance.
Medieval European Jewry repeatedly faced banishment for both economic and religious reasons.
Jews Around the Globe
Amsterdam became a haven for Jewish refugees from the Inquisition.
Medieval Jews found religious tolerance and economic opportunity in Poland
The accumulation of disasters in the Middle Ages--expulsions, crusades, and the Black Death, to name a few--inspired a steady stream of Jewish immigration to the Holy Land.
Ancient/Medieval Jewish History
From the Muslim-Arab conquests of the 7th century to the appearance of modern ideas in the 1,000 years later.