Pirates and plague loomed, and prized possessions sold for a pittance.
Medieval European Jewry repeatedly faced banishment for both economic and religious reasons.
New, more fanatical Muslim rulers caused the quality of Jewish life in North Africa and Egypt to deteriorate during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Jews Around the Globe
Amsterdam became a haven for Jewish refugees from the Inquisition.
Medieval Jews found religious tolerance and economic opportunity in Poland
The accumulation of disasters in the Middle Ages--expulsions, crusades, and the Black Death, to name a few--inspired a steady stream of Jewish immigration to the Holy Land.
Ancient/Medieval Jewish History
Jews got entangled in the Christian quest to recapture the Holy Land from Muslims.
Jews & Non-Jews
Scholar Norman Roth questions whether the idea of the medieval Church makes sense as a category of analysis for Jewish history.
Jews in the Medieval Islamic Empire
The complex political situation in Muslim Spain impacted Jewish social and cultural life there.