Chrein (Horseradish)

Enjoying a pungent Russian tradition.

Written with Efim and Irina Marmer.

As Sancho Panza to Don Quixote, faithful R2-D2 to C-3PO, so is chrein (sometimes spelled hrein or chrain) to its gefilte fish. This spicy relish, traditionally made out of beets and horseradish, can be found in any kosher deli, and in the kosher section of many grocery stores. Balancing the relatively bland and somewhat sweet fish cutlet with a much-needed flavorful kick, gefilte fish and chrein are a perfect combination. Yet there’s more to chrein than this.Chrein means “horseradish” in Russian. In the Old Country the plant grew everywhere: backyards, fields, parks. Grandmothers would collect its juicy leaves to use in pickling–when added to the brine, they help pickled cucumbers retain their crunchiness. Slavs and Jews ate chrein in relish form year round, on sandwiches, with meats, and poultry. The popularity of this easy-to-make, cheap topping was extremely wide-spread.

While a side-kick every other week of the year, chrein makes a solo appearance on Passover, acting as maror–the bitter herb on the seder plate. Many Jews buy the prepackaged supermarket brands, but some people have the tradition of going back to chrein’s roots–that is, the roots of the horseradish plant, which they themselves grind to create fresh and pungent maror.

My family treasures a story of how my great-uncle, as a child, invited a friend over to his house. When his mother, who was making a batch of chrein, stepped out of the kitchen, my great-uncle lured his friend in. “My mother is making delicious soup, and if you want we can have some,” he said. “Smells heavenly, wanna check it out?” The unsuspecting friend opened the pot, where the relish sat, and inhaled–a lungful of chrein-scented air. Fresh horseradish is incredibly pungent, and even seasoned chrein-eaters sniff it with caution; the story goes that the boy almost fainted, coughing, crying, and laughing at the same time.

Aside from such pranks, chrein has a prominent place in old-school Russian idioms. The meanings it takes on are diverse, and oftentimes have something to do with the root’s phallic shape. “Chrein be with you,” for instance means “to hell with you”; and you can probably surmise the meaning of “why the chrein would I want to do this” as well.

Yet, you do not need to be Eastern European, and you don’t need to wait for Passover, to put together your own fresh batch of chrein. Made from scratch, it is a delicious alternative to mustard and wasabi sauces (indeed, horseradish belongs to the same Brassicaceae family of plants as mustard and wasabi). It works with deli meats, grains, or as a dip for baby-carrots and crackers. Just be careful it doesn’t knock you off your feet!

In America, horseradish root is mostly available in Russian specialty shops and health-food stores.


2 1/2 Tablespoons sugar

1 Tablespoon lemon juice

10 oz raw horseradish

5 oz raw beets

1 Tablespoon salt

1 Tablespoon sugar

10 oz raw horseradish

1/2 cup white vinegar

1 cup warm boiled water

1 Tablespoon salt


For White Chrein:
Peel the horseradish and grind it finely in the food processor. Mix it together with all the other ingredients and refrigerate in a tightly closed jar. It will be ready to eat after a few hours.

For Red Chrein:
Peel the beets and horseradish and let them both sit in cold water for about an hour. Drain and grind them finely. Mix together with all the other ingredients and refrigerate in a tightly closed jar–it will be ready in a few hours. .

While these two recipes extend many centuries back, some modern variations also call for mayonnaise–trying adding 1-2 tablespoons to taste.

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