Memory is often elusive and selective, and this is especially true in the case of a people’s historical memory. Understanding and interpretations of the past have shaped Jewish identity and collective memory throughout the ages, and Jews represent a unique fusion of history, memory and peoplehood. As a result, the Jewish people have the two-fold reputation of being a history-centered people and of holding the longest and most tenacious of memories.
Social scientist Maurice Halbwachs introduced the notion of collective memory as transmitted and sustained through the conscious efforts and institutions of the group. For the Jewish people, collective memory flows through ritual and recital. Not only does the injunction “zakhor” (remember) appear multiple times in the Hebrew Bible, but the Israelite nation is also instructed there not to forget. Many scholars argue that the English translation of the zakhor as “remember” is too small in scope, arguing, rather, that the word implies a level of action.
One active way of remembering is through the practice of rituals. The Passover seder, the ritual meal with a liturgy that celebrates Jewish freedom from slavery in Egypt, is perhaps one of the best examples of the actualization of memory. The entire seder can in some sense be seen as a symbolic reenactment of a historical moment. Moreover, one of the central dictums of the Seder, “in each and every generation let each person regard him- or herself as though they had emerged from Egypt,” enforces the fusion of past and present.
The holiday of Hanukkah, which celebrates the victory of the Maccabees over the Greeks and the miracle of a one-day oil supply that lasted for eight days, provides another example from the Jewish calendar of the ritual actualization of memory. The “memory” of the miracle of the oil is privileged by rabbinic tradition over the Maccabees’ battles for religious and political autonomy, and is reflected in the central ritual of the holiday, the lighting of the Hanukkah menorah or hanukkiyah.