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Reprinted with permission from The Jewish Religion: A Companion, published by Oxford University Press.
Angels are supernatural beings who perform various functions at God‘s behest. The Hebrew word malakh comes from a root meaning “to send” and is used both in the ordinary sense of a messenger and in the sense of an angel “sent” by God. (The English word “angel” is derived from the Greek angelos with the same meaning of messenger.) In Genesis 32:2, Jacob meets the angels of God (malakhey elohim) but in verse 4 he sends messengers (malakhim) to his brother Esau, though in a Midrashic fancy it is the angels mentioned in verse 2 that Jacob sends to Esau.
In the Bible
References to angels are found throughout the Bible but with the exception of Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; 9:21) and Michael (Daniel 13; 12:1) in the late book of Daniel, the angels in the Bible have no name. When Manoah asks the angel to tell him his name, the angel replies that it is secret (Judges 13:17-18). The interesting observation is found in the Talmud that, in fact, the names of the angels came into the possession of the Jews from Babylon. The word el appended to an angel’s name means God; thus Gabriel (from gevurah, “power”) means “power from God.”
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