Word found at the end of prayers has a long, complex history.
Solomon Ibn Adret wrote numerous Medieval responsa.
Coexistence and conflict.
Modern Jewish History
Austro-Hungarian rabbi who fought against the influence of Reform.
Despite the cynical tone of Ecclesiastes, it has been given a place of joy and honor in the Jewish cycle of readings.
How the sages' debates across many generations became the monumental works known as the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds
Jeremiah's tragic message is conveyed by both his prophecies and account of Jerusalem's destruction, but he also gives his people hope.
Traditionalists as well as modernists opposed Hasidism on social, theological and cultural grounds.
One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.
Theological attitudes toward Christianity have changed over time in response to social and political developments.