free will

Who Really Hardened Pharaoh’s Heart?

Was God responsible for the Egyptian leader's intransigence?

Becoming Free in Judaism

From the beginning of biblical time, man has struggled to break his binding ties in order to become free, independent, and fully human.

The Free Will Problem: Modern Solutions

Modern thinkers have addressed the free will problem by questioning the authority of science, acknowledging the limits of freedom, and asserting the transcendent importance of choice.

The Denial of Free Will in Hasidic Thought

According to some Hasidic thinkers, human free will is an illusion; God causes all human actions.

Free Will in Judaism 101

Jewish tradition assumes that our actions are significant.

Hardened Hearts: Some Explanations

Medieval commentators suggested justifications for God's hardening Pharaoh's heart.

The Free Will Problem: Medieval Approaches

In the Middle Ages, Jewish thinkers struggled to reconcile God's knowledge of the future with human choice.

The Free Will Problem: Early Solutions

Biblical and rabbinic sources stress both divine determinism and human freedom.

Hardened Hearts: Removing Free Will

The Bible records several problematic instances of God hardening human hearts, seemingly stripping them of free will.