europe

Regina Jonas

The first female rabbi and how she was almost forgotten.

Jews & Sports on the International Scene

The history of Jews in Europe and the early Zionist movement show ample examples of the convergence of sports and Judaism. By Michael Brenner

How Spain and Portugal Expelled Their Jews

Pirates and plague loomed, and prized possessions sold for a pittance.

Expulsion and Readmission

Medieval European Jewry repeatedly faced banishment for both economic and religious reasons.

Sephardic Jews in Amsterdam

Amsterdam became a haven for Jewish refugees from the Inquisition.

Jews in Poland

Medieval Jews found religious tolerance and economic opportunity in Poland

Jews in Palestine

The accumulation of disasters in the Middle Ages--expulsions, crusades, and the Black Death, to name a few--inspired a steady stream of Jewish immigration to the Holy Land.