Holocaust Survivors

As the number of Holocaust survivors declines every year, efforts have been made to preserve their testimonies.

Six million Jews were killed in the atrocities of the Holocaust, but about 3.5 million survived. Some were liberated from concentration camps at the end of the war, some were working with partisans in the resistance, and some were hidden by righteous gentiles, or escaped the Nazis before the Final Solution was fully underway. After the war these survivors mostly left Eastern Europe for other countries. Many immigrated to Israel, America, Canada, and Australia.

Today there is a concerted effort to record the memories and testimonials of survivors for posterity. The largest bank of testimonials is found at the USC Shoah Foundation, which was founded by Steven Spielberg in 1994 after he made the film Schindler’s List. Originally named the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation it became a part of the University of Southern California in 2006. Several legal cases have been brought before international courts to provide compensation and benefits for survivors who were stripped of their property and citizenship during the war. There are also many organizations that work to ensure that survivors have food, access to health care, and safe housing. Despite these efforts, it is estimated that half of the Holocaust survivors around the world live in poverty.

To learn more about Holocaust survivors, check out the organizations listed below.

Interviews and Testimonials

Telling Their Stories–Survivors and Liberator
Listen, watch, or read stories of those who survived the war, and those who liberated the concentration camps, interviewed by school children and historians.

Six survivors tell their stories.

Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive
Since 1981, Dr. Sidney Bolkosky, Professor of History at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, has interviewed Holocaust survivors. Listen to the archives he has collected.

USC Shoah Foundation Institute
Founded by Steven Spielberg, the Institute’s archive contains nearly 52,000 video testimonies of Holocaust survivors and other witnesses in 32 languages and from 56 countries.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Videos and transcripts of interviews with more than 500 survivors.

Concerns for Survivors Today

Survivors in Israel Face Poverty
In old age, many are alone and penniless.

In 2013, One-Fourth of Holocaust Survivors in U.S. Lived Below Poverty Line
One-fourth of Holocaust survivors in the United States are living below the poverty level, not the 7 percent previously believed, figures from the latest national Jewish population study show. And a similar study of New York-area survivors found half living below the poverty level.

Worldwide Many Holocaust Survivors Live in Poverty

The Jewish Claims Conference has said that about half of the estimated 517,000 survivors of the Shoah who are still alive live in poverty and are struggling to make ends meet.

Discover More

National Holocaust Memorials

A transnational comparison.

Holocaust as History

An introduction to historical scholarship about the Holocaust.

Displaced Persons After the Holocaust

The survivors said: "We were liberated, but we are not free."