Louis Jacobs

Amen

Word found at the end of prayers has a long, complex history.

Rashba

Solomon Ibn Adret wrote numerous Medieval responsa.

Moses Sofer

Austro-Hungarian rabbi who fought against the influence of Reform.

Ecclesiastes

Despite the cynical tone of Ecclesiastes, it has been given a place of joy and honor in the Jewish cycle of readings.

The Editing of the Talmud

How the sages' debates across many generations became the monumental works known as the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds

Jeremiah: Prophet of Judgment and of Hope

Jeremiah's tragic message is conveyed by both his prophecies and account of Jerusalem's destruction, but he also gives his people hope.

Hasidism’s Many Critics: Mitnagdim and Maskilim

Traditionalists as well as modernists opposed Hasidism on social, theological and cultural grounds.

Spinoza

One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.

Historic Jewish Views on Christianity

Theological attitudes toward Christianity have changed over time in response to social and political developments.