The first mention of Israeli cuisine brings to mind two basic ingredients–chickpeas and sesame seeds. Both figure prominently in Israel’s signature dish, the falafel sandwich: chickpeas appear in two forms–deep-fried (falafel balls) and pureed (hummus)–and sesame seed paste, called tahini, is drizzled on top.
What’s the history and significance of these two ingredients? Chickpeas have a number of Jewish associations. They are traditionally eaten on Purim, because of the legend recorded in the Talmud (Megillah 13a) that Esther was a vegetarian during her stay in the court of Ahasuerus. In order to maintain the standards of kashrut, her diet included many beans, nuts, and seeds, including chickpeas. On Rosh Hashanah, there is also a tradition of eating chickpeas and other round foods, to remind us of the cyclical nature of life. Originally grown in the Middle East, chickpeas are common in traditional Sephardic foods. For example, a typical Sephardic stew for Shabbat, called Schina, contains chickpeas, rice, potatoes, meat, and whole eggs.
Sesame seeds hold a long history in Middle Eastern, and in Jewish, cuisine. Used since ancient times in India, and later, through Turkey and Persia, sesame seeds are a traditional source of oil and protein. Symbolic in Jewish foods, sesame seeds are sprinkled on food as a reminder of the manna gathered in the wilderness during the exodus from Egypt. They are sprinkled on a variety of foods in Israel, including pastries, breads, and candies.
In the salad recipe below, chickpeas receive a much lighter preparation than they do in fried falafel or long-cooking Shabbat stew. Here they are cooked briefly and tossed with spicy arugula greens and vegetables into a filling salad. Tahini is very versatile, and it is featured here as a creamy dressing, pumped up in flavor by the addition of roasted garlic.
I highly recommend using dried chickpeas, available in the bulk section of many supermarkets, or in Middle-Eastern or Indian markets. Their flavor and texture is far superior to the canned beans, and they are also more economical. Just remember to soak the dried beans the night before you want to make the salad. You can use canned beans if you are in a rush, but they will not have as much flavor.
salt and pepper to taste
1/2 cup olive oil
1/2 cup tahini paste
2 Tablespoons apple juice or water
1 Tablespoon maple syrup
2 bunches (approx. 3/4 lb) arugula or one 5-oz bag baby arugula
1 bunch radishes (approx. 3/4 lb)
1 small red onion (approx. 1/2 lb)
1 pt grape or cherry tomatoes
1 head roasted garlic
1/4 cup lemon juice
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup dried chickpeas, soaked for 8 hours, (or one 15-oz can chickpeas
4 cups water
1 teaspoon cumin seeds
Squeeze the cooled roasted garlic out of its paper, and place in a blender. Add lemon juice, maple syrup, apple juice or water, tahini, and olive oil. Blend well. Add salt and pepper to taste. The dressing will keep up to one week in the refrigerator.
Pronounced: seh-FAR-dik, Origin: Hebrew, describing Jews descending from the Jews of Spain.
Pronounced: shuh-BAHT or shah-BAHT, Origin: Hebrew, the Sabbath, from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday.
Pronounced: TALL-mud, Origin: Hebrew, the set of teachings and commentaries on the Torah that form the basis for Jewish law. Comprised of the Mishnah and the Gemara, it contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis from different periods in Jewish history.