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At the heart of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is a land dispute. In order to understand this dispute, it is necessary to know the history of the territory in question. The following article discusses the history of the disputed territories between 1987 and 1999. Since then, the Second Intifada broke out, leading to the breakdown of the Oslo Agreements. In 2005, Israel unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip. Today, Israeli society is still deeply divided regarding the fate of the territories, as attempts to negotiate a lasting peace between Israelis and Palestinians continue. This article is excerpted with permission from The Jewish Agency.
After the Intifada
The Intifada (literally “shaking off’) or Palestinian uprising in the territories which began at the end of 1987 brought the issue of the territories to a head. The riots that spread from the Gaza Strip to the West Bank/Judea‑ Samaria and the Israeli use of force to combat them led to considerable controversy within Israeli society. Pressure on the government to find a solution to the problem of the territories mounted both from within the country and from without. As seen in the Knesset elections of 1988 which led to a national unity government dominated by the Likud, Israeli society was essentially split down the middle over the preferred policy in the territories. The Likud Prime Minister, Yitzhak Shamir, proposed an autonomy scheme in May 1989 that focused on elections inthe territories as a first stage in autonomy negotiations although this did not gain the support of some of his more hard‑line colleagues.
The plan was picked up by the United States and became the basis of the negotiations carried out by Secretary of State James Baker during 1989. Disagreement between Labor and Likud led to the fall of the national unity government in early 1990.
After the Gulf War in early 1991, American efforts at initiating Arab‑Israeli negotiations were resumed, culminating in the Madrid Conference (October‑November, 1991) which set in motion a process of bilateral negotiations between Israel and Syrian, Lebanese and Jordanian‑Palestinian delegations respectively. In practice, the delegation split into separate Jordanian and Palestinian teams, and though Israel was formally negotiating with an independent Palestinian delegation, it was in fact dealing indirectly with the PLO. When, after the Labor party (under Yitzhak Rabin) came to power in June 1992, it became apparent that the Palestinian delegation had no real power of its own, Israeli officials began to negotiate in secret with the PLO directly. These negotiations led to an agreement in September 1993 which gave the Palestinians self‑government under a Palestinian Authority (led by Yassar Arafat, then head of the Fatah and Chairman of the PLO Executive) in almost all of the Gaza Strip and the area of Jericho. This was laterextended to most of the Arab cities in the West Bank/Judea‑Samaria, with discussion on permanent status of the territories to be continued at a later date.
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