Gragger — Yiddish for “noisemaker.” Graggers are used during the reading of the megillah (see below). When the reader speaks the name of Haman the congregation tries to drown out the evil name using noisemakers and booing.
Hamantaschen — Yiddish for “Haman’s pockets,” known in Hebrew as “oznay Haman” meaning “Haman’s ears.” A triangular cookie with a filling (typically jam or poppyseed) inside, traditionally eaten on Purim.
Matanot l’evyonim — Hebrew for “gifts to the poor.” It is a commandment to give to the poor on Purim.
Megillah — Hebrew for scroll, it is usually used to refer to the scroll of Esther (Megillat Esther, also known as the Book of Esther), a book of the Bible traditionally read twice during the holiday of Purim. Megillah scrolls are often illuminated.
Mishloah manot, shlah manot — Hebrew for “sending portions to one another.” A phrase taken from the Megillah that commands the Jewish community to give small packages of food or gifts to friends on the day of Purim.
Purim — Hebrew for “lottery,” and the name of the holiday.
Shpiel (sometimes spelled spiel) — Yiddish for “play” or “skit.” A Purim shpiel is a humorous and dramatic presentation of the events outlined in the Book of Esther, often performed on Purim eve.
Taanit Esther — Hebrew for “the fast of Esther.” A fast from sunrise to sunset on the day before Purim, it commemorates the fast that Queen Esther and the Jews of Shushan undertook.
Tzedakah — Hebrew for “righteousness” or “justice,” but it is often interpreted as charity. It is a commandment to give tzedakah to those in need on Purim.
Pronounced: muh-GILL-uh, Origin: Hebrew, meaning “scroll,” it is usually used to refer to the scroll of Esther (Megillat Esther, also known as the Book of Esther), a book of the Bible traditionally read twice during the holiday of Purim. Slang: a long and tedious story or explanation.
Pronounced: PUR-im, the Feast of Lots, Origin: Hebrew, a joyous holiday that recounts the saving of the Jews from a threatened massacre during the Persian period.
Pronounced: tzuh-DAH-kuh, Origin: Hebrew, from the Hebrew root for justice, charitable giving.