Israel in Jewish Thought
Today, for better and for worse, many Jews consider Zionism and Judaism synonymous. But this was not always the case. In fact, since the beginning of modern Zionism, some Jews have stood in opposition to it.Read More
Ancient & Medieval IdeasIn the Bible
In the Bible, possession of the Land is tied to moral behavior.Tithing
The Rabbis developed an elaborate system of tithing produce, mostly to provide livelihood for priests and Levites.In the Talmud
In rabbinic literature, Israel was of primary importance--even as the Diaspora grew.In Medieval Thought
The Land of Israel was an abstract object of speculation and imagination.Kabbalah
Medieval kabbalah offers various approaches to the Land of Israel.
Modern ZionismSecular Zionism
From religious idea to secular ideology.Religious Zionism
Religious Zionists believe that the Jewish return to Israel hastens the Messiah.The Miami Platform
A Reform declaration of Zionist belief.Clash of Nationalisms
Arabs in Zionist thought.Gush Emunim
Settling all the land.
New historians' critiques of Zionist discourse.Ultra-Orthodox & Anti-Zionist
Groups like Neturei Karta and Satmar bitterly oppose the modern State of Israel.Meir Kahane
The founder of the Jewish Defense League pushed the boundaries between spiritual leader, politician, and terrorist.Questioning Zionism
Since the beginning of modern Zionism, some Jews have stood in opposition to it.Israelis and the Jewish Tradition
In this book, David Hartman grapples with issues that divide Israeli secular and religious Jews.
Books & PeopleJudah Halevi
A philosopher, poet, and lover of the Land of Israel.Theodor Herzl
The foremost leader of Political Zionism.Abraham Isaac Kook
According to Kook, Jews can only reach their full spiritual potential in the Land of Israel.Broken Vessels
Rabbi Kook on nationalism and religion.Yeshayahu Leibowitz
This Israeli philosopher saw problems with both secular and religious Zionism.