Jewish thinkers have both embraced and directly reacted to foreign ideas and philosophies.
The philosophers of the Middle Ages believed they were unearthing existing wisdom, not creating new ideas.
Jewish thought is not a single continuous tradition, but rather a varied mix of works, which reflect the specific ideological and historical positions of those who wrote them.
Jewish thought in modern times has been shaped by radically new political realities.
It is more accurate to speak of Jewish philosophies than of a single Jewish philosophy.