Gemara and Talmud

Talmud Words and Phrases

Essential vocabulary for understanding the Talmud.

Rabbenu Tam

The grandson of Rashi and leader of medieval French Jewry.

Commentators on the Talmud

A guide to the major sages and scholars known for their work on this canonical text.

Talmudic Thinking

Monotheism and the sanctification of the trivial

The Written Torah and the Oral Torah

According to Jewish tradition, two Torahs were received on Mount Sinai -- one written, and one passed down orally for generations.

Rashi’s Commentaries on the Talmud

The beloved Torah commentator also wrote a much-used commentary on the Talmud.

The Editing of the Talmud

How the sages' debates across many generations became the monumental works known as the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds

Tale of Two Talmuds: Jerusalem and Babylonian

The two versions of the Talmud developed simultaneously in the two major Jewish communities of the rabbinic era.

The Tosafot

The Tosafists continued the conversation with their glosses on the text of the Talmud.

Gemara: The Essence of the Talmud

Together with the Mishnah, these texts make up what is known as Rabbinic Judaism.