Early Modern Jewish History

Mercantilism and the Jews

When tolerance became profitable

Court Jews

Court Jews were purveyors who provided food, fodder, and munitions to the European courts in return for special privileges.

Hasidism’s Many Critics: Mitnagdim and Maskilim

Traditionalists as well as modernists opposed Hasidism on social, theological and cultural grounds.

False Messiahs

What prompted Jewish messianic zeal in the 16th and 17th centuries?

Early Modern Jewish History

When did the modern era begin for Jews?


One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.