When tolerance became profitable
Court Jews were purveyors who provided food, fodder, and munitions to the European courts in return for special privileges.
Traditionalists as well as modernists opposed Hasidism on social, theological and cultural grounds.
What prompted Jewish messianic zeal in the 16th and 17th centuries?
When did the modern era begin for Jews?
One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.