Parashat Ki Tissa

The Idol Of Complacency

The prohibition against making an idol warns us not to fix our image of God, but rather to allow our conception of God to evolve.

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Provided by KOLEL--The Adult Centre for Liberal Jewish Learning, which is affiliated with Canada's Reform movement.


Parashat Ki Tissa begins with instructions for taking a census and a half-shekel contribution from the Israelite adults, and continues with more instructions for making the worship implements for the Mishkan (Tabernacle). After that, God reminds Moses to tell the people about the holiness and importance of Shabbat.

The most famous part of our Parashah is the story of the Golden Calf: The people, upset at Moses's delay up on the mountain, make a statue of a bull or cow and venerate it as their liberator, apparently with Aaron's cooperation. Both God and Moses become angry with the people, and although Moses rebukes them harshly, he also prays on their behalf.

Finally, Moses goes up the mountain again and beseeches God to reaffirm the Covenant; Moses also wants a unique experience of God's Presence. With great drama, God shows Moses God's "back" but not God's "face," and does reaffirm the Covenant and its ritual and ethical stipulations.

In Focus

"Do not make for yourself any molten gods" (Exodus 34:17).


After the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses goes back up the mountain to plead with God, Who reveals attributes of mercy and forgiveness along with strict justice. However, Israel must obey the terms of the covenant, which include keeping the holy days and a stringent prohibition on anything resembling the worship of other deities. After the Israelites build the idol of gold, God reminds them in no uncertain terms that they must not make physical representations of Divinity.


In its context, our verse makes perfect sense: God is irate about the Golden Calf, and warns the Israelites not to try it again. However, building statues of the sea-deity isn't on most people's agendas these days. Thus the famous Hassidic rabbi Menahem Mendel from Kotzk, also known as the Kotzker, used this verse to point out that creating a limiting representation of the Source of All doesn't necessarily mean building something physical:

"Do not make for yourself any molten gods"--do not make for yourself a god that is fixed in form [i.e., "molten" into one form], with unchanging routines. (Source: Itturei Torah, translation mine.)

I suspect that the Kotzker is making a pointed comment about the religious life of his day, but his insight continues to be relevant. Our experience of spirituality and religion must grow and change over time--if we have the same conception of God at 50 that we did at 15, then we've missed something important. Thus the traditional commentaries insist that the commandment of Torah study lasts until one's dying day--perhaps not only because the way one understands Torah will change as we age, but the way we view our lives and world can change if we never stop viewing it through the prism of sacred texts.

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Rabbi Neal J. Loevinger

Rabbi Neal Joseph Loevinger is currently the rabbi of Temple Beth-El in Poughkeepsie, NY. A former student at Kolel, he served as Kolel's Director of Outreach from late 1999-2001. He was ordained in the first graduating class of the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies of the University of Judaism, and holds a Master's of Environmental Studies from York University in Toronto.