Parashat Ki Tavo

It's The Joy, Not The Oy

Our religious and spiritual experiences of serving God should be joyful and uplifting.

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Provided by KOLEL--The Adult Centre for Liberal Jewish Learning, which is affiliated with Canada's Reform movement.


Parashat Ki Tavo opens with the commandment to bring the first fruits to the priests. This ritual includes a verse many will recognize from the Passover Seder, recalling that "my ancestor was a wandering Aramean." This is followed by an elaborate staging in order to illustrate the many blessings that will follow one who follows Torah, and the many curses which will come upon the nation if they don't. The parashah concludes with a review of the good things that God has done for Israel since the exodus from Egypt.

In Focus

"Because you did not serve the Adonai your God joyfully and gladly in the time of prosperity..." (Deuteronomy 28:47).


In the theology of Deuteronomy, blessings of abundance and prosperity follow loyalty to God's covenant, while curses of the most terrible kind are the consequence of disloyalty. The section of curses in this parashah is called tokhekha, or rebuke; it is not a prophecy of what will happen, but a warning of what might happen.


To understand suffering as punishment for sin leads to the idea that undeserved suffering must be because of undisclosed sin--and that can add layers of guilt and shame onto sickness, accidents, or other tragedies. Thus, I'd rather not read this section of curses, the tokhekha, for its theology of punishment. I can, however, read it as a statement of values--by positing dire consequences for certain actions, the Torah is saying: "pay close attention, this is what I want you to take really seriously."

With that in mind, we can better understand the insight of the Hasidic master Rabbi Simcha Bunim of Pshischa (Poland, 19th century):

"Because you did not serve Adonai your God joyfully . . ." The Torah does not specify the sins for which the Jewish people will be punished. The only one that it mentions specifically is "because you did not serve the LORD your God joyfully" (Itturei Torah).

How is it that lack of joy is a sin? I don't think this means that we can never be sad or angry--life has its ups and downs, and that is normal and expected. Rather, I think R. Simcha Bunim is talking about "serving Adonai your God," that is, making our religious and spiritual disciplines joyful.

There is a line of classical Jewish theology which stresses feeling commanded by God at all times, which is certainly a very serious thing--but R. Simcha Bunim reminds us that we can experience our spiritual practices as a tremendous gift, a daily opportunity to find blessings in the world. As one recent convert to Judaism put it, "I don't think of it [pick a commandment] as have to, but get to."

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Rabbi Neal J. Loevinger

Rabbi Neal Joseph Loevinger is currently the rabbi of Temple Beth-El in Poughkeepsie, NY. A former student at Kolel, he served as Kolel's Director of Outreach from late 1999-2001. He was ordained in the first graduating class of the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies of the University of Judaism, and holds a Master's of Environmental Studies from York University in Toronto.