A Timeline of Jewish Texts

How did the different genres of Jewish texts develop chronologically?

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This timeline does not try to record every major document, but rather, it focuses on a single representative document for a particular century. Occasionally, authors are listed rather than a single work. Documents which have not been preserved or seen as authoritative by later Jews, are marked with an asterisk (*).

 
Bible
Talmud
Law Codes
Liturgy
Thought and Ethics
Mysticism
History
Biblical Precedents   Deuteronomy Psalms Proverbs Ezekiel ch. 1 Samuel, Kings
300 BCE         *Ben Sira    
200 BCE Septuagint--Greek Translation   *Jubilees     *Book of Enoch *Demetrius the Chronographer
100 BCE     *Qumran Manual of Discipline   *Aristobulos of Paneas   *1-2 Maccabees
1       *Qumran Angelic Liturgy      
100 *Philo's Allegorical Interpretation     Shemoneh Esreh     *Josephus Antiquities
200       Discussion of intention in prayer     Seder Olam Rabbah
300 Mekhilta on Exodus Mishnah     Pirkei Avot (part of Mishnah)    
400 Genesis Rabba Tosefta     Avot d'Rabbi Natan    
500   Talmud Yerushalmi       Talmudic Pardes Stories  
600 Midrash Tanhuma Babylonian Talmud   Piyyut of Yannai   Sefer Yetzirah  
700 Vowels in copies of Biblical texts Saboraic Glosses to the Talmud She'iltot of Ahai of Shabha Piyyut of Eleazar haKallir      
800   Tractate Soferim Halakhot Pesukot     Shiur Komah Seder Olam Zutta
900 *Karaite Benjamin Nahawendi   Halakhot Gedolot Seder Rav Amram Gaon      
1000 Sa'adia's Arabic Summary Gershom b. Yehudah of Mainz   Sa'adia's Siddur Sa'adia's Emunot v'Deot Sefer Hakhmoni on S. Yetzirah Iggeret of Sherira Gaon
1100 Rashi's Commentary Rashi's Commentary Alfasi's Sefer Halakhot Mahzor Vitry Bahya's Hovot haLevavot   Chronicle of Ahimaaz
1200 Abraham Ibn Ezra Rabbenu Tam and Tosafists Maimonides Mishneh Torah Piyyut of Kalonymous Family Yehudah HaLevy's Kuzari Sefer haBahir Ibn Daud's Sefer haKabbalah
1300 Ramban Tosafot and Hiddushim of Maharam Asher b. Yehiel-Piskei haRosh Rokeach Commentary Sefer Hasidim Zohar  
1400 Ralbag Rabbenu Nissim Yaakov b. Asher's Arba'ah Turim Sefer Abudarham      
1500 Abarbanel Bartenura Mishnah Commentary Moellin's Sefer haMaharil   Yosef Albo's Sefer ha'Ikkarim Cordovero's Tomer Devorah Zacuto's Sefer haYuhasin
1600 Mikra'ot Gedolot printed MaHaRShal's Yam shel Shlomo Karo and Isserles's Shulhan Arukh Alkabetz writes L'kha Dodi     Azaria de Rossi's Meor Einayim
1700 M. Alshekh's Torat Moshe published Samuel Edels "Maharsha" Joel Sirkes' Bayit Hadash on the Tur   Spinoza's Tractatus Horowitz's Shnei Luchot haBrit Conforte's Koreh haDorot
1800 Me'am Loez Vilna Gaon's Text emmendations Danzig's Hayyei Adam Emden's Siddur Beit Yaakov Sh. Zalman of Lyady's Tanya M.H.Luzzato's Pitchei Hokhmah Amelander's She'erit Yisrael
1900 Commentary of S.D. Luzzatto Hiddushim of Akiva Eiger Epstein's Arukh haShulchan Baer's Avodat Yisrael Kagan's Hafetz Hayyim   Graetz's History of the Jews
2000 Nehama Leibowitz' Studies Lieberman's Tosefta Kifshutah Feinstein's Igrot Moshe Additions for Israel's Independence Kaplan's Judaism as Civilization   Baron's Soc. & Religious History
 
Bible
Talmud
Law Codes
Liturgy
Thought and Ethics
Mysticism
History

 

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Jeffrey Spitzer is Chair of the Department of Talmud and Rabbinics at Gann Academy, The New Jewish High School, Waltham, Mass., and a member of the Institute's Tichon Fellows Program.