Reprinted with permission from JPS Guide: The Jewish Bible.
In light of the basic difference between biblical law (divine authorship) and Mesopotamian law (human authorship), and the expressed goal of biblical law: “But you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Exod. 19:6), it is possible to single out several of its distinctive traits:
1. Since law is an expression of divine will, all crimes are considered sins and certain offenses become absolute wrongs in capable of human forgiveness. This applies, for example, to the case of adultery: “If a man commits adultery with a married woman . . . the adulterer and the adulteress shall be put to death” (Lev. 20:10; compare with Deut. 22:22). Unlike the Mesopotamian laws that permit the husband or the king to decide either to punish the wife and adulterer or to grant them pardon, adultery in the Bible is not merely an offense against the husband but also a sin against God that cannot be pardoned by a human agency.
2. The whole of one’s life is directly related to the will of God. Only in Israel are all civil, moral-ethical, and religious obligations interwoven in to a single body of legislation. In Mesopotamia, these three realms would be incorporated, respectively, in legal collections, wisdom compilations, and priestly handbooks, all composed by different human authors. Since God is Israel’s sole legislator, the people are ultimately held solely responsible to God for all aspects of their existence.
God Loves Israel
3. Unlike in Mesopotamia, where the king alone was chosen by the gods to write the law, the God of Israel selects all the Children of Israel to be the recipients of the divine law. God’s care and concern extend to all members of this community, not to one chosen individual. Thus everyone is held personally responsible for the observance of the law. This, in turn, leads to the concept of individual and joint responsibility. No longer is it the sole concern of the leader of the community (as was for the king in Mesopotamia) to maintain justice and to protect the rights of the community; it is now the responsibility of every member of the society. Since the law was communicated to all, the obligation for its observance rests on the entire people. Each member of the community, then, has the dual responsibility to observe the law personally and collectively, as a group. Each must see that justice is executed and that all crimes are punished; otherwise the community and its members are threatened with dire consequences. Faithful observance of the law grants divine protection and reward to both the individual and the group. Law becomes the single most important factor in the life and destiny of Israel.