This article is excerpted from The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer. Reprinted with the permission of the publisher. Copyright 1996 Jason Aronson, Inc.
A prayer for rain, comprising several paragraphs, is recited by Sephardim on Shemini Atzeret. Some recite this section after lema’an shemo be’ahavah in the Shaliach Tzibbur’s [service leader’s]repetition of the Amidah [standing prayer], while others recite it prior to the recitation of Musaf [the additional service], immediately before the Torah scrolls are returned to the ark.
Shifat revivim (“O Lord, pour down copious showers from Thy heavens”), ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol, is the first prayer said. The author’s first name, Shelomoh, is signed in the form of an acrostic at the beginning of the first lines in the poem and is followed by the wish HaZaK (“Be strong!”).
When Tikkun Hageshem is said prior to Musaf, the rabbi and hazzan [cantor]stand next to the scrolls of the Torah while reciting the prayer. The prayer that follows is Mechaseh shamayim (“O Thou Who coverest the heavens”). Its authorship is unknown. The sentence, “So open, we pray, Thy goodly treasury of rain, to revive all in whom a soul is breathed, as Thou makest the wind to blow and the rain to fall,” is repeated as a refrain five times.
The prayer following is Leshoni vonaneta ckhonaneta and is also said in tikkun ha-tal [the prayer for dew recited in the Spring]. It concludes with the first blessing of the Amidah, magen Avraham [shield of Abraham], when Tikkun Hageshem is said in the repetition of the Musaf Amidah.
The prayer service continues with Yisbe’un yedidckha (“Give to Thy beloved children plentifulness”), which includes the poem Ayl chai yiftach otzrot shamayim (“God of life, open Thy heavenly treasures”). Written in an alphabetical acrostic form in which biblical phrases are used, the phrase “May the wind blow and the rain flow” appears as a refrain.
The text in the London, Amsterdam, and Spanish-Portuguese Mahzorim [holiday prayerbooks]omits the stanzas beginning with the letters vav (Vetazil mitral) and zayin (Zekhor rahamecha). It seems, however, that these two stanzas did appear in older prayer books, as each stanza makes reference to one of the biblical heroes in whose merit we ask for rain, and it would be unthinkable that the poet left out Aaron and David, as intimated in these two stanzas. In the Syrian tradition the eight stanzas, honoring the seven Ushpizin plus Elisha and Melech ha-mashi’ach [the king messiah], are assigned to different worshipers to recite.