The Shavuot Marriage Contract

An agreement between God and Israel


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Reprinted with permission from
The Shavuot Anthology
published by the Jewish Publication Society. The ketubah is translated by Solomon Feffer.

In many Sephardic congregations, prior to the Torah reading on the first day of Shavuot a ketubah le-Shavuot (marriage certificate for Shavuot) is read as a symbolic betrothal of God and His people Israel. There are various versions of such piyyutim (religious poems), nearly all similar in terminology to the traditional t’naim [literally “conditions”] the premarital document specifying the conditions agreed upon between the two parties) or the ketubah (certificate the bridegroom presents to the bride at the wedding ceremony).  

These are hymns based on the verses, “I will betroth thee unto Me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness, and in justice, and in lovingkindness, and in compassion. And I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness, and thou shalt know the Lord” (Hosea 2:21-22) and “I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel” (Jeremiah 31:31).

Some texts describe the marriage as being solemnized symbolically between the Torah–the bride–and the people of Israel, the bridegroom. In these versions, God as the bride’s father gives as dowry the 613 commandments, the Bible, Talmud, and other sacred writings. Moses presents as dowry to his son–the people of Israel–the prayer shawl and phylacteries, the Sabbath and festivals. The contracts are witnessed by God and His servant Moses.

In other versions, the “Prince of princes and the Ruler of rulers” presents the Torah to the bride as dowry, and in His love He gives her the Oral Law as an added portion. The bride responds affectionately, “We shall do and we shall hearken.” The contract is dated the sixth day of the month Sivan in the year 2448 from the creation, which is traditionally the day on which the Torah was given. The Mishnah comments that the wedding day of King Solomon (Song of Songs 3.11) refers to the day of the giving of the Torah. The heavens and the earth witness the marriage certificate.

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Philip Goodman is the author of The Rosh Hashanah Anthology (Jewish Publication Society, 1970, 1992).

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