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A Jewish ritual bath, or mikveh (sometimes spelled mikvah), can be found in almost every Jewish community (you can search here for a traditional mikveh, or here for a non-Orthodox mikveh directory). In larger Jewish communities you might have a choice among mikvaot (plural for mikveh).
According to the classical regulations, a mikveh must contain enough water to cover the entire body of an average-sized man (Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin 4b). The rabbis calculate the necessary volume of water as being 40 seah (most contemporary authorities believe this is about 150 gallons). The rabbis also specified that a mikveh must be connected to a natural spring, or to a well of naturally occurring water–like rainwater.
If you’ve ever visited an ancient historical site in Israel, there’s a good chance you’ve seen a mikveh–or the remains of one. The picture to the right, for example, is an ancient mikveh at the popular tourist attraction Masada–the site of a Jewish fortress community from the first century CE.
Since the mikveh at Masada was far from any natural spring, it presumably functioned as a cistern for rain, and the Masada residents immersed therein. Though stagnant rainwater could hardly have been hygienic, this mikveh would still have met the legal requirements to purify; in Judaism, ritual purity and hygiene can be two very different categories.
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But if you visit a contemporary mikveh, rest assured that mikveh architecture has come a long way in the past 2000 years. Today, systems for gathering water for mikvaot are much more complex–and much more hygienic.
Generally, a tank of rainwater is connected to a small pool that contains heated and treated (often chlorinated) tap water, much like a swimming pool. Since the tank and the pool are connected, the waters of the latter “acquire” the purifying quality of the rainwater in the tank. Nearly every contemporary mikveh has a filtration and disinfecting system.
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