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The central symbol of Sukkot is the eponymous sukkah, the hut in which Jews are supposed to eat and dwell during the holiday, in remembrance of the wanderings of the Jews in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt. Many Jews build their own sukkot (plural of sukkah) in their backyards or elsewhere on their property, while in many cases a communal Sukkah at a synagogue or community center takes the place of the family Sukkah. Oftentimes the decoration of the communal Sukkah becomes a community activity in its own right, with the children in particular getting together and decorating it. Such a Sukkah becomes both a focus of the communal celebration of the holiday and the center of the community’s social life during Sukkot.
A major focus of public worship on Sukkot is the waving of the “four species” during communal prayer services. The origin of this custom is a verse in the Torah, according to which the Israelites are commanded to “take the produce of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook and you shall rejoice before Adonai your God seven days” (Leviticus 23:40). The rabbinic tradition understood this to mean that one should acquire a lulav and an etrog. A lulav is a palm branch; the branch is placed in a holder together with sprigs of myrtle (aravot) and willow branches (hadasim). These three are collectively referred to as the lulav, since the palm is the dominant feature. The etrog is a variety of citrus fruit also known as a citron.
The lulav and etrog are picked up and symbolically waved at different parts of the morning service. When they are all held together and shaken in prayer they are viewed as fulfilling the verse in the book of Psalms (Chapter 35:10), which declares that “All of my bones shall proclaim, ‘O Adonai, who is like You?’” (Leviticus Rabbah 30:14). In this manner, it is symbolic of devoting one’s entire body to the worship and praise of God.
The lulav and etrog are picked up and blessed for the first time during the synagogue services at the beginning of a section of prayers called Hallel or Psalms of Praise (Psalms 113-118). The lulav and etrog are held in one’s hands throughout the joyous singing and recitation of these psalms and are waved in the six directions at three different points in the chanting of these psalms.
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