Reprinted with permission from
The Jewish Religion: A Companion
, published by Oxford University Press.
Nahman of Bratslav (1772-1811), a Hasidic master and religious thinker, was a great-grandson of the founder of Hasidism, the Baal Shem Tov. Nahman sought to reinvigorate the movement which he saw as having lost its original impetus.
He gathered around him a small number of chosen disciples, among them Nahman of Tcherin and Nathan Sternhartz, the latter acting as his faithful Boswell, recording his life and teachings. Nahman undertook a hazardous journey to the land of Israel (1798-9). A year or two after his return he settled in Bratslav where he remained until 1810. The last year of his life was spent in the town of Uman in the Ukraine where he died of tuberculosis at the early age of 39.
Photo courtesy of Sheynhertz-Unbayg.
In Uman, Nahman became friendly with followers of the Haskalah movement of enlightenment. Although he is extremely critical of all secular learning, some of the ideas he seems to have obtained from these Maskilim do occasionally surface in his own works. Nahman’s grave in Uman is a place of pilgrimage for his Hasidim to this day. The veneration in which the Bratslaver Hasidim hold Nahman is unparalleled even in Hasidic hero-worship. In the Bratslav synagogue, in the Meah Sharim district of Jerusalem, Nahman’s original throne-like chair stands next to the Ark. Nahman promised his followers that he would be with them even after his death, so that no successor to him has ever been appointed and the Bratslaver are called the “dead Hasidim” in that, unlike all others, they have no living master.
Nahman’s ideas on the Jewish religion were conveyed verbally, in Yiddish, to his disciples but were later written down by them, under the heading Likkutay Moharan, “Collection of Sayings by Our Teacher Rabbi Nahman.” Basing his theory on the doctrine of Isaac Luria that the En Sof [the infinite God in kabbalistic thought] withdrew into Himself leaving an “empty space” into which all worlds could emerge, Nahman draws the conclusion that, in a sense, the world is void of the full presence of God. That is why, he affirms, man is bound to have religious doubts and all his attempts at proving the existence of God are doomed to failure from the outset. The only way to find God is through faith which alone can raise the human soul beyond the void.
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