Sometimes the 25-hour period of Shabbat, the day of rest, can be so sweet that it’s difficult to see it come to an end. An informal ceremony called a melaveh malkah can soften the blow. After Shabbat, at a melaveh malkah, friends and family stick around for one more meal. They sing, tell stories, and bid a proper goodbye to the Sabbath until next Friday night.
“Melaveh malkah” literally means “escorting the queen.” Malkah, the queen, is the feminine embodiment of Shabbat itself. The song Lekhah Dodi in the Friday night liturgy welcomes Shabbat as a bride, while the melaveh malkeh sees “her” out as a queen.
Roots of the Queen
The word melaveh comes from the same three-letter Hebrew root as levayah, or funeral ceremony. As one is escorted through the transition from life to death, so too is the Sabbath Queen escorted from her weekly throne into the everyday. In each case, we take memories of the previous stage with us into the next one, easing the loss and enriching the moment.
According to a midrash, the meleveh malkah dates back to the days of King David, who begged God to tell him when he would die. God refused to concede, but did reveal to David that he would die on a Sabbath. Starting that week, David held a celebratory feast at the end of every Shabbat, thanking God and reveling in the joy of being granted one more week of life.
Mystics & Hasidim
The custom of a joyful post-Shabbat meal was adopted by kabbalists in the late 19th century. This mystically-minded group drew connections between Shabbat, which was considered a taste of the world to come, and their fervent belief in the coming of the Messiah and the ultimate redemption of the world. They were reluctant to let this special time end, so they instituted the melavah malkah meal as an extension of the day. They dedicated their celebrations to King David, whose familial line is understood to be that of the Messiah, as well as to other figures such as Elijah the prophet, whom tradition teaches will herald the coming of the Messiah.
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