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Reprinted with permission from
The Jewish Religion: A Companion
, published by Oxford University Press.
In Jewish thought the love and fear of God are to be understood as complementing one another. Fear without love can easily result in a too rigorous and ultimately stultifying approach to the religious life. Love without fear can just as easily degenerate into sheer sentimentalism.
Biblical and Rabbinic Love
The great biblical text for the love of God is: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “All your heart” in this context refers less to the emotions than to the mind: in the biblical idiom the intellect is located in the heart, the inner aspect of the human personality. “With all your soul” means “with all your being”; the Hebrew nefesh, translated as “soul,” really refers in the Bible to what we would call the person rather than the soul.
But in early rabbinic thought the love of God is understood less as an attitude of mind or as an emotional response than its advocating a course of action. The rabbinic Midrash known as the Sifre, for example, has the following comment on the verse: “Take to heart these instructions with which I charge you this day (Deuternomy 6:6).” “Why is this said? Because it is said: ‘You shall love the Lord your God, with all your heart’ and I do not know in what way God is to be loved, therefore it says: ‘Take to heart instructions with which I charge you this day.’ Take these to heart and in this way you will come to recognize God and cleave to His ways.”
In this passage, typical of the rabbinic emphasis on doing the will of God, on the deed, love is understood to mean the practice of the precepts and the study of the Torah. This leads to, and in a sense is identified with, the “recognition” of God and attachment to His laws. There are passages in the rabbinic literature which do speak of the love of God as an intense longing for God’s nearness. But the main emphasis in the rabbinic literature is on love expressed in the deed.
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