Bahya Ibn Pakudah
11th-century Spanish philosopher best known for Duties of the Heart, an attempt to organize Jewish ethical teachings into a cohesive system.
14th-century Spanish philosopher who defended Judaism against Christianity.
One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.
Medieval Jewish Philosophy: Reason in a Religious Age
The philosophers of the Middle Ages believed they were unearthing existing wisdom, not creating new ideas.