Philosophy

Gersonides

Medieval philosopher followed the rationalistic mode of Aristotle.

Bahya Ibn Pakudah

11th-century Spanish philosopher best known for Duties of the Heart, an attempt to organize Jewish ethical teachings into a cohesive system.

Hasdai Crescas

14th-century Spanish philosopher who defended Judaism against Christianity.

Judah (Yehuda) Halevi

A Spanish poet, philosopher and proto-Zionist.

Medieval Jewish Philosophy: Reason in a Religious Age

The philosophers of the Middle Ages believed they were unearthing existing wisdom, not creating new ideas.