Modern Jewish Philosophies

Moses Mendelssohn

Herald of the Jewish Enlightenment.

Emmanuel Levinas

A 20th-century philosopher whose Jewish sensibility influenced his encounter with Western thought and ethics.

Rabbi Louis Jacobs

Scholar and leader known for his prolific writing and intellectual integrity.

Martin Buber

The creation of a Jewish existentialism--and a Jewish state.


One of the most significant figures in the history of philosophy, Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish community.

Modern Jewish Philosophy

Jewish thought in modern times has been shaped by radically new political realities.