Jewish Women in Medieval Christendom

Marriage, money, and religious education.

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Reprinted from Jewish Women in Historical Perspective, edited by Judith Baskin, 1991, with permission of the Wayne State University Press.

Jew began settling in Western Europe in Roman time, primarily as merchants and traders. As Europe became Christian, Jews found themselves subject to increasing legal disabilities, a process that continued throughout the medieval period. Eventually, Jews were barred from virtually any source of livelihood but moneylending. They were often compelled to wear distinctive clothing and badges, and ultimately, toward the end of the Middle Ages, they were either expelled altogether from areas where they had long lived ,or were forced to live in crowded and unpleasant ghettos (beginning in Rome in 1555).

The number of Jews in Western Europe was far smaller than in the Moslem world; although Western European Jews were also urban, they lived in tiny communities in cities a great deal smaller than those of the East. Despite the legal disabilities they suffered and their ultimate insecurity as to property and life, these Jews tended to be quite prosperous and enjoyed a standard of living comparable to the Christian lower nobility and upper bourgeoisie.

Married as Girls, but Economically Active

Jewish women were active participants in the family economy; and their status was certainly higher than that enjoyed by their sisters in the Islamic milieu, indicated, in part, by the large dowries they brought into marriage. Girls in this society, despite Talmudic prohibitions to the contrary, were betrothed very young, often at the age of eight or nine. A young woman might be married at eleven or twelve, while her husband would be almost the same age.

One young woman, an orphan whose brothers had arranged her engagement, married and established her own household while she was still eleven-and one-half years old. A year later, “when she reached her majority [according to Jewish law, twelve-and-one-half] she sued her brothers for her proper share of her father’s estate.

Early Marriage:  Sin and Economics

Why were children married so young? One commentary on the Talmud from the thirteenth century gives the following explanation: “The reason we nowadays are accustomed to betroth our daughters even while they are minors is that our life in the Diaspora is becoming harder; consequently if a person is now in a financial position give his daughter a proper dowry, he is apprehensive lest after the lapse of some years he will be in no position to do so and his daughter will remain unwed forever.”

But there were other, less negative motivations as well. One would be the religious desire to remove young people from the sexual tensions and temptations that might lead to sin. Economic factors were also operative. Favorable business conditions meant that a well-dowered young couple could support themselves immediately, learning the business at the same time. Moreover, marriage could form an enduring and profitable partnership between two wealthy families, contributing to the prosperity of all. Marriages might also have a social aspect, for settling a young daughter well proved her desirability and increased her family’s prestige.

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Judith Baskin

Judith Baskin is the Director of the Harold Schnitzer Family Program in Judaic Studies and a Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Oregon.