Medieval kabbalah (mysticism) in Spain is generally grouped in two broad categories: The “Gerona Circle” approached kabbalah philosophically, while “ecstatic” or “prophetic” kabbalah sought a transformative spiritual experience. The following article examines the Land of Israel in the thought of the 13th-century ecstatic kabbalists. Reprinted with permission from The Land of Israel: Jewish Perspectives, edited by Lawrence A. Hoffman (University of Notre Dame Press).
Alongside the theosophical brand of kabbalah, which is mainly concerned with the inner processes in the Godhead, there exists another type of Kabbalah, the prophetic, or ecstatic, one. This latter kabbalistic school was interested in techniques of reaching ecstatic experience rather than in influencing the divine powers.
The focus of discussion in the works of the representatives of prophetic kabbalah is the inner processes taking place within human consciousness. According to the theosophic kabbalah, the Land of Israel becomes symbolic of a supernal manifestation; the prophetic kabbalah perceives it as a metaphor for human status.
Prophecy, In & Out of the Land
According to R. Abraham Abulafia, the outstanding proponent of this brand of kabbalah, the true analogue of the Land of Israel is the human body. Commenting upon the rabbinic dictums which asserts that prophecy will not dwell (i.e., occur) outside the Land unless it dwells beforehand within the Land, Abulafia maintains that a simplistic, i.e., merely geographical, understanding of the meaning of “Land of Israel” is untenable. He emphasizes the fact that the first prophecy reported in the Bible occurred in Ur Hasdim, when Abraham was told to leave his homeland for the Promised Land. In Abulafia’s opinion, the Land of Israel is the body of the righteous man, whereas the term “huts la-aretz“–outside the Land–points to the soul, which is different from the body. Therefore, the geographic meaning of the Land of Israel is irrelevant in the context of the gift of prophecy; the Divine Presence (i.e., the Shekhinah) dwells everywhere, although only in someone who is worthy to receive prophetic inspiration.