Author Archives: Jeanne E Abrams

Jeanne E Abrams

About Jeanne E Abrams

Jeanne E. Abrams is a professor at Penrose Library at the University of Denver and the longtime director of the Beck Archives and the Rocky Mountain Jewish Historical Society, part of the University of Denver's Center for Judaic Studies and Penrose Library.

American Jews at the Turn of the Century

As America moved from an agricultural to industrial country in the late 19th century, the forces of modernization transformed the Jewish community as well. While most Jews had originally settled in port cities on the East Coast of the United States, the revolution in transportation created a network of roads, canals, and railroads which influenced Jewish migration westward.

New Frontiers, New Opportunities

A significant number of young Jewish men peddled goods in these new frontier markets, and the more successful ones often put down roots in small towns and cities throughout the South, the Midwest, and the Far West, establishing stores and shops, as well as a nascent Jewish community.
jews at the turn of centuryIn some cases the early stores evolved into major business enterprises like that of the Shwayder brothers in Denver, Colorado–whose modest trunk company became the internationally known Samsonite Luggage Corporation–and Levi Strauss of blue jeans fame in San Francisco. They also brought Judaism to these regions, organizing religious services for the High Holidays and the Sabbath and forming Jewish burial societies. These activities planted the seeds for future Jewish congregations

The urban centers across the country–New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, St. Louis, Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles–were home to the largest Jewish communities by the turn of the 20th century. At the same time, smaller Jewish enclaves dotted the landscape of every state in America. Most of these communities had synagogues that were affiliated with at least one, if not all three, young but dominant Jewish strains of religious affiliation at the time: Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox.

Full Americans & Good Jews

Striving to be viewed as fully American as well as good Jews, Jewish connections were expressed through philanthropy and communal work. Beginning most notably with Rebecca Gratz of Philadelphia in the 1820s, Jewish women took an increasingly prominent role in founding and perpetuating the institutions that grew out of this impulse. Gratz is best remembered as the initiator of America’s first “Hebrew School” and the main impetus behind the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society (1819), which served as the model for future Jewish women’s charitable organizations.

Jewish Pioneer Women

Within five years of the start of the Gold Rush in 1848, more than 5,000 Jews migrated to California in search of opportunity, joining members of other religious and ethnic groups. After 1858, with most of the California mining sites appropriated, gold seekers migrated to new strikes in Colorado, Nevada, Montana, Idaho, and Oregon. 

Civilizing the West

Jews also fanned out across other nearby states, including Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, and Washington, and by 1920 numbered about 300, 000 in the West. Jewish women were central to the region’s economic, political, social and cultural development.

Some of these women were the wives, daughters, and sisters of the Jewish merchant elite, with the means and leisure time available for prominent involvement in civil life and social welfare issues. Many more, however, performed daily work within their households, contributing to family income as well as taking part in the foundation of philanthropic institutions, synagogues, schools, and libraries. Together, these women helped civilize the raw West and construct communities where social order and Jewish family life could flourish.

Particularly in early western boom towns–where growth was often rapid and chaotic and the number of females small–mutual assistance was critical, and western women often enjoyed more equal status than women in other regions. Domestic skills, for example, commanded top dollar. Many women became seamstresses and food purveyors, or pursued hotel and boarding house ventures.

This path was successfully followed by western Jewish women like Mary Ann Cohen Magnin in California, a talented fine embroiderer who became the guiding hand behind the famous upscale women’s clothing store,  I. Magnin and Company; Anna Freudenthal Solomon in Arizona, who first ran a general store and later a successful hotel for nearly twenty-five years, while raising a large family; Jeanette Hirsch Meier of Portland, Oregon, who after her husband’s death presided over the largest department store in the far West; and Regina Moch of Eureka, Nevada, who operated a thriving restaurant that supported her after the death of her husband in a local fire.