Author Archives: Felice Malkin

About Felice Malkin

Felice Pazner Malkin is co-editor of Lexicon of the Arts. She established the art studios of the Rothschild Center in Haifa, 1958-1970, the Arab-Jewish art Center at the Hebrew University's Buber Institute, 1971-1973, and has taught as the Usdan Art Center, New York and at the State University of New York. A book of reproductions of her work appeared in 2000.

Jewish Art in Medieval & Modern Times

Excerpted with permission from “The Arts in Judaism: The First 3,000 Years,” published in Contemplate: The International Journal of Cultural Jewish Thought.

In the History of Jewish Art, Cecil Roth summarizes the research into the influence of synagogue art on Christian Church art and then on European art in general. Frescos such as those found in Dura Europos are seems to have exerted an influence on early church art, whose effect in turn is evident in most medieval art and thence in Renaissance art. Roth sees a parallel between the development of church music from synagogue music and the development of the figurative arts in the two religions.

maurycy gottlieb

Jews Praying in Synagogue
on Yom Kippur, 1877.
By Maurycy Gottlieb

Betzalel Narkiss, who wrote and edited an expanded edition of the Roth History, perceived clear continuity in Jewish art from the Hellenistic-Byzantine period through to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a continuity in style, thematic motif (the Hand of God for instance) and in the treatment of the motifs. The same thematic and formal motifs from synagogues built around the middle of the first millennium C.E. reoccur in mahzorim (High Holiday prayer books), haggadot (Passover seder books), and ketubuot (Jewish wedding contracts) of the first centuries of the second millennium–i.e. 500 to 700 and more years later.
Borrowing from the Host Society

From the beginning of the second millennium C.E., Jewish art in its Diasporas takes on ever more strongly the color of its host society’s art, both Muslim and Christian. Throughout the Islamic world, from Iraq and Yemen to Spain, Jews worked in the fields of letters, literature, and philosophy and, like their Muslim rulers (Iran excepted) almost totally shunned figurative arts. In Christian lands, Jews spoke and wrote in the local vernacular and their art–in illuminating mahzorim, haggadot, and ketubot, and other types of manuscripts–shows clearly the influence of their surrounding.

Jews in the Islamic world almost totally shunned the figurative arts, drawing their authority from a strict reading of the Second Commandment [prohibiting “graven images”]. Those sections of Jewry that came under the sway of Kabbalah [Jewish mysticism], as it spread eastward from Western Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries, did not make forms and images in the spirit of Kabbalah, apart from the magical amulets of practical Kabbalah. These sometimes bore an eye or hand composed of letters, biblical verses, or magical formulae.

Jewish Art in the Ancient World

The following article assumes a certain amount of knowledge of contemporary scholarship concerning the origins and development of Judaism in the ancient world. Many scholars believe that the ancient Israelites were disparate tribes in the land of Canaan that came together to form a new people, and that  polytheism and adherence to the cultic practices of the Canaanites around them was retained by some Israelites even after monotheism became the norm. Indeed, the Prophets of the Hebrew Bible repeatedly exhort the Children of Israel to abandon their idols and alternate deities. These idols and practices are seen theologically by Jews today as examples of sins committed by their ancestors. To the author of this piece, however, they are among the examples of the prominence of art in ancient Israel. (To learn more about this time period, visit the Ancient Jewish History section.) 

Excerpted with permission from “The Arts in Judaism: The First 3,000 Years,” published in Contemplate: The International Journal of Cultural Jewish Thought.

A “Jewish work of art” is either a work by an artist whose Jewishness clearly influenced his or her art, or a work by a Jewish artist that has had a significant place in Jewish culture.

ancient jewish artThe Bible provides detailed descriptions of works of art that played an important role in Israelite religio-cultural life. We can still see works that have survived from the Hellensitic, medieval, Renaissance, and Enlightenment periods. Jews, influenced by their surroundings, have been involved in all the artistic genres–painting, sculpture, mosaic, fresco, architecture, the design of religious and household implements, manuscript implementation.

Sculpture in Ancient Israel

The Bible, as the foundation and repository of Jewry’s collective memory, features many descriptions of work of sculptures and figurative art.

At the entrance to Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem stood 12 cast oxen, bearing on their back the great bronze “sea,” a huge open water tank described in I Kings 7:25. The walls of Solomon’s Temple were also hung with embroidered tapestries of cherubim. A bronze serpent, held to be the work of Moses himself, is referred to twice in the Bible (Numbers 21:82, I Kings 7:29).