Author Archives: Alex Joffe

About Alex Joffe

Alexander H. Joffe is an archaeologist and historian specializing in the Middle East and contemporary international affairs. From 1980 to 2003 he participated in and directed archaeological research in Israel, Jordan, Greece and the United States.

Jewish DNA Speaks

Reprinted from Jewish Ideas Daily.

Are Jews a “nation” or a “people”? The Hebrew term am means both. Both terms, moreover, have been subjected to disapprobation in our time—although not nearly to the extent of “race,” a term that Jews themselves stopped using nearly a century ago. How, then, are we to think about the mounting genetic evidence that points to Jewish biological continuity over time?

The field of genetics has been offering up sensational new observations about the historical record of Jewish origins, exile, and migrations. On the men’s side of the aisle, one of the most dramatic discoveries is that both Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi kohanim—traditionally, descendants of the biblical high priest Aaron—share an extended haplotype or DNA sequence variation that does indeed distinguish them from other Jews (as well as non-Jews). The divergence is estimated to have taken place about 3,200 years ago (plus or minus a thousand years): that is, well before the dispersion of the Jewish people into communities around the Middle East and Europe. Although it remains difficult to say whether the lineage traces to Aaron himself, scientific research does support the self-identification of many or most kohanim today.

In the women’s section, the results are equally profound. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only by mothers, indicates that four lineages—that is, four specific women in the Middle Ages—were the originators of 40 percent of the entire Ashkenazi population. Somewhere before the 12th century, these four founders, whose own genetic ancestors hailed from the Near East, appeared in Europe, probably in the Rhine Valley, to become the matriarchs of much of the Ashkenazi world. There may then have followed a long period of “bottleneck,” without significant population growth, in which mutations may have manifested themselves in the form of genetic disorders. Such characteristically Ashkenazi diseases as Tay-Sachs may have been one byproduct of such group cohesion and slow growth.

The Iraqi Jewish Archive

Reprinted from Jewish Ideas Daily.

To whom do antiquities belong? Are they the property of modern states, current proprietors of the real estate where they were created, however many centuries or millennia ago? Do they belong to the descendants of those who created them, to the extent these can be identified? Or are they somehow the heritage of “all mankind”?

bombay jewsFor Jews, these questions took on flesh in 2003 in the flooded basement of a building belonging to the Iraqi secret police. There, American soldiers searching for clues to Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction came upon an even stranger sight: a waterlogged trove that had once belonged to Iraq’s Jewish community. The Iraqi Jewish Archive, as it became known, is both proud and pitiful. The earliest item dates to 1568, but most of the other materials are from the late-19th and early-20th centuries: Judeo-Arabic manuscripts, Torah scrolls and mantles, children’s primers, family photographs, letters, all seized from Iraq’s long-banished Jews. Through a confluence of initiatives involving the U.S. military, the Iraqi opposition, the Coalition Provisional Authority, and the Iraqi State Board of Antiquities and Heritage, the trove was transported to the U.S. where it was freeze-dried, conserved, and photographed. It remains in the charge of the National Archives and Records Administration and the Center for Jewish History. Although basic cataloging has been done, more extensive preservation and digitization await funding and a resolution of the archive’s fate.

Representatives of the Iraqi Jewish community in Israel have staked a claim to the trove. But so, for its part, has Iraq itself, whose new Minister of Tourism and Antiquities has named the return of the archive as a top priority. After all, countless items looted from Iraq’s museums and archaeological sites, from ancient tablets to Saddam’s gold plated AK-47, have already been restored. Why not the Iraqi Jewish Archive?

Indeed, Western democracies have lately become accustomed to such demands. The Elgin Marbles, their fate still undecided, are the most famous example, but countless objects have already been repatriated to countries ranging from Peru to China, sometimes before requests were entered. Even outright gifts, like Cleopatra’s Needle in New York’s Central Park, are on the list of Zahi Hawass, the Egyptian pharaoh of archaeology who travels the world demanding that every object ever created in Egypt be returned or otherwise made subject to his personal decision.