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1. The alphabet. Yiddish is written in the Hebrew alphabet, which consists of the following 22 letters:
Yiddish has combined some of these letters, and added some diacritics, to better represent the speech sounds of the language. Some of these letters are:
Yiddish is read from right to left (as is Hebrew). In words of more than one syllable, the accent usually falls on the next-to-the-last syllable, as in
2. Grammar. The following is a greatly simplified description of some of the basic rules of Yiddish grammar. For serious study, we recommend Uriel Weinreich’s classic text, College Yiddish, published by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.
Articles. The Yiddish indefinite article, a, an, is used the same way as the English article a, an. But unlike in English, the Yiddish definite article is distinguished by gender in the singular: der yingl (the boy, masculine); di mame (the mother, feminine); dos kind (the child, neuter). The plural has only one definite article, di: di kinder (the children).
Adjectives. Gender is important also in forming adjectives. When modifying a masculine noun, the adjective ending is -er (masculine): a guter fraynd (a good friend); with a feminine noun, the ending is -e: a gute neshome (a good soul); with a neuter noun, the adjective ending is also -e when it is preceded by a definite article; and regardless of gender, the plural ending of an adjective is also -e: di sheyne hayzer (the beautiful houses).
Nouns. Yiddish nouns take chiefly the following plural endings:
-n, -en, as in shuln (schools), nodlen (needles)
-er, as in kinder (children), hayzer (houses)
-s, -es, as in fishers (fishermen), zaydes (grandfathers)
-ekh, as in shtetlekh (towns)
-im, as in khaveyrim (friends)
Verbs. The infinitive of Yiddish verbs has the ending -n or -en, as in esn (to eat), zingen (to sing). The past participle of Yiddish verbs is formed by adding the prefix ge- and the ending -(e)n or -t to the base of the verb. For example, the past participle of kumen (to come), is gekumen, and of nitsn (to use), is genitst. The past tense of verbs is formed by adding the past participle to the auxiliary verbs hobn (to have) or zayn (to be)–for example, ikh hob gezen (I saw, I have seen); zey zaynen (or zenen) gekumen (they came, they have come).
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