Early Stages of Persecution

In 1933, new German laws forced Jews out of many areas of public and professional life.


The Night of Broken Glass that began the Nazi reign of terror.


Nazis established more than 400 ghettos for the purpose of isolating and controlling the Jews.

Final Solution

How the Nazis planned and executed the systematic murder of European Jewry.


Fighting back any way they could.

Memory & Commemoration

Holocaust Museums

A transnational comparison.

Early Proposals

Should Yom Hashoah be linked to other tragedies or commemorate only the Nazi Holocaust?

Choosing a Date

After much debate, a compromise date--satisfactory to none--is chosen.

Responding to Genocide

Jewish perspectives on the responsibility to protect.

Discussions with Children

A topic that may seem far from modern children's lives holds valuable social lessons.


Challenging Faith

This singular event presents profound theological challenges.

Finding Meaning

Responding to the challenge of faith in a post-Holocaust world.

Uniqueness of the Holocaust

For some theologians, the evils of the Holocaust were unique; others believe they can be integrated into traditional theological discourse.

Responding to Modern Suffering

The Holocaust put the problem of suffering at the fore of Jewish theological discourse.

Radical Theology

The findings of modern science and the tragedy of the Holocaust led some Jewish thinkers to redefine God.

The Arts

Anne Frank

Who was the famous young diarist?


The secret magazine of the boys of Terezin.

Elie Wiesel

Elie Wiesel brought the Holocaust and its survival to the American public.

Art Spiegelman

Using a medium often associated with lightheartedness to portray the horrors of the Holocaust.

Women in Holocaust Literature

Many women who wrote about the Holocaust explored issues related to gender and sexuality.