European Jewry: The Beginnings

The genesis of Ashkenazic identity.


How and why did Jews settle in Europe? How did their communities and identities change when they left established centers of Jewish life, like Palestine and Babylon? The following article provides a general account of the beginnings of European Jewry. It is reprinted with permission from Eli Barnavi’s A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People, published by Schocken Books.

The history of the beginnings of a Jewish presence in Europe cannot be thought of as a linear and continuous development. The evidence is fragmentary, random, and often inconsistent. 

The earliest recorded presence of Jews in medieval Europe is that of colonies of oriental or “Syrian” merchants in towns north of the Loire or in southern Gaul during the fifth and sixth centuries. In the historians’ debate concerning the demarcation of periods, the existence of these colonies attests to the persistence of trade in the period of transition from the urban and Mediterranean world of Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages. It also indicates the contraction of commerce which was then limited solely to the import of luxury goods and carried out almost exclusively by non‑indigenous groups which inherited the role of the Greek‑speaking diaspora.

european jewAfter an interruption of over 150 years, we encounter another group of Jewish merchants, new arrivals from the great centers of Jewish civilization in Palestine and Babylon. They were attracted to Europe not only by the profit to be made in distant lands but also by the policy of protection offered by the Carolingian kings who wished to encourage and control the suppliers of expensive textiles, spices, and other luxury articles consumed by the rich nobility.

In the ninth century, some of these merchants were involved in long­ distance trade encompassing the whole of Eurasia. From the Frankish kingdom they exported swords, slaves, and furs to the Muslim world: then, following the Silk Road to India and China and returning via Khazaria and the Slavic lands, they brought back spices and perfumes to Europe. A Muslim document refers to these great dealers as radhaniya (from the river Rhone or a region near Baghdad).

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Eli Barnavi is the Director of the Morris Curiel Center for International Studies and a Professor of Jewish History at Tel Aviv University

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