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After my grandfather’s death, I rifled through a shabby valise into which he had tossed important-seeming documents. Among the runic scraps were several fragile pages of type-written Yiddish with their English translation, signed and dated, Tel Aviv, 1957, and titled “Sworn Declaration in Lieu of Birth Certificate.”
The Declaration’s armature of legalese, embossings, seals, and signatures provided no diversion from the sad, bare facts of its purpose. Among the more mundane things that World War II had apparently taken from my grandfather were the various cards and certificates, the official tokens of passage that validate one’s legitimacy as a citizen, resident, person. In lieu of these he had improvised, finding two men to attest to the names of his lost parents and the faraway city and date of his birth. Swearing “by Almighty God,” they concluded:
We know from personal knowledge these facts, having known his parents since before his birth, … all the important events which happened to this family, and were present at the Circumcision ceremony, which according to the Jewish Religion Ritual, took place 8 days after the boy’s birth.
This officious document sounded in my ears as I read Rashi’s commentary on the Israelites gathering for the desert census in Parashat B’midbar: “They brought the documents of their pedigrees and witnesses of their birth claims, each and every one to declare their pedigrees after their tribes.”
The Anxieties of Belonging
With this, Rashi cracks open the parashah’s decorous, formulaic narration of the census. He reveals what must have been a cacophony of men presenting their witnesses, reciting their lineages, and gesticulating, documents in hand, to confirm the facts of their birth–the wonderful, plaintive roar of hundreds of thousands of men shouting into the vast wilderness who they were and affirming that they belonged.
It is not hard to hear the anxieties of identity and belonging straining through the Israelites’ declarations of “pedigrees after their tribes.” At the time of the desert census, the clamoring Israelites could look back a mere two years (Numbers 1:1) to their enslavement in Egypt and peer expectantly into the coming 38 years before they would finally settle in Canaan. During those long years of wandering they surely contemplated that theirs was a history of dislocation, beginning with Abraham and continuing through the migrations of Jacob from hunger and Joseph–whose bones they carried–from violence.
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