suffering

Ask the Expert: Animal Experiments

Can we cause an animal to suffer to save a human life?

The Book of Job

The book of Job challenges the simple equation of suffering with punishment, by telling the story of one righteous man's confrontation with overwhelming misfortune.

The Uniqueness of the Holocaust

For some theologians, the evils of the Holocaust were unique; others believe they can be integrated into traditional theological discourse.

Israel as Estranged Wives and Widows

The metaphor of Israel as the wife of God receives several potent and shocking midrashic reinterpretations as the rabbis reflect on Israel's suffering and persecution.

The Book of Job: A Whirlwind of Confusion

An ambiguous divine speech is the subject of great scholarly debate.

The Anthropological Implications of Suffering

The rabbis of the talmudic era were more interested in the human response to suffering than in finding theological justifications for its existence.

Suffering & Evil 101

Why do bad things happen to good people?

Suffering and Evil: Jewish Solutions

According to the Torah, Jews have a special relationship with God. It is the problem raised by this relationship--more than the philosophical one--that is often discussed in biblical and rabbinic literature.

Medieval Jewish Responses to Suffering & Evil

The philosophers and mystics of the Middle Ages suggested an array of solutions to the problem of suffering.

Mystical Explanations for the Existence of Evil

According to the kabbalists, evil is a bi-product of the relationship between humans and the sefirot, God's manifested attributes.