Eating Holy Food in a Holy Way
What can we do with knowledge of the sources of our food?
A Veil of Ignorance
Two points stand out from Rashi's comments. Firstly, biblical food production is regional. Each part of the Land of Israel is known for the particular kinds of crop and produce native to it. Secondly, it is personal. We know that the members of the tribe of Judah grow our grapes, those in Asher make olive oil, those in Issachar harvest fruit, etc. A biblical Jew could, if he or she chose, easily trace the short and transparent journey of each item from the ground, via the grower, to their plates.
It is challenging for contemporary suburban Jews to find any relevance in these notions. We buy our industrially produced and packaged food in supermarkets that are identical from Brooklyn to Brookline and from Skokie to Silver Spring. Contemporary Western eaters have lost any connection to the people who grow their food or the place where it is grown.
Does this matter? Michael Pollan, in his influential book The Omnivore's Dilemma, argues that it matters very much. Pollan claims that the industrial food chain relies on a thick veil of ignorance being cast between us and the process of production.
From meat raised in CAFOs (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations), to methane-belching corn-fed cattle, to the raising of monoculture fruits, vegetables, and grains, to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on our produce, we simply do not want to know too much about how what we eat arrives on the supermarket shelves.
If we were fully aware of the cruelty frequently involved in raising our food, the environmental degradation caused by growing it, the health risks to consumers in processing and preserving it, and the immense expenditure of fossil fuels in transporting it, we would be troubled, if not repulsed. Pollan's disturbing achievement is to rip away the veil of ignorance and rub our faces in the raw facts about our food.
How should we exercise the ethical responsibility that comes with knowledge about the sources of our food? Pollan writes about Polyface Farm, a pesticide and fertilizer free farm where the animals are all free-range. Its owner, Joel Salatin believes, "The only meaningful guarantee of integrity is when buyers and sellers can look one another in the eye." Knowing the people who grow our food, we can take a measure of responsibility for how it reaches us.
How can urbanites living thirty miles from the nearest farm possibly do this? One small way is through Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) projects. City-dwellers subscribe at the beginning of the growing season, pay a few hundred dollars, and receive a box of produce each week. Hazon's pioneering Tuv Ha'Aretz (whose name means "the best of the land") supports a dozen farms across the United States and one in Israel, making it the first Jewish CSA scheme. It is based on the conviction that that in addition to the laws of kashrut, we also need to consider the full range of ethical issues involved in our food's production.
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