How the Yiddish translation of the Torah, Megillot and Haftarot became associated with women.
Reprinted from Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia with permission of the author and the Jewish Women's Archive.
Tzenah Urenah is a rendering in Yiddish of the Torah, the Megillot (five scrolls of the Bible) and the Haftarot. In the Torah, the discourses are based on a selection of verses and topics from the weekly portion treated in an exegetical and at times homiletically inclined manner, drawing from numerous sources, primarily the Midrash (especially Bereshit Rabbah) and the Talmud, Rashi and his interpreters and many other exegetes, with R. Bahya ben Asher ibn Hlava (Spain, 13th century) in the lead.
Though there is clear preference for p'shat (literal meaning), the work does not refrain from combining it with d'rash (interpretation of Scripture). Other sources are added in the rendering of the Megillot which, although also based on selected verses and topics, is closer to the original narrative. The Haftarot are mainly rendered in a consecutive translation interspersed with short sporadic quotations from the text.
History of the Text
The oldest extant edition of the Tzenah Urenah was published in 1622 in Hanau and not in Basel as stipulated in the frontispiece, which refers to three previous editions (one printed in Lublin and two in Cracow) as already out of print. More than 210 editions have since appeared (some with illustrations), first in Central and Eastern Europe and later also in the United States and Israel.
While the various early editions show few linguistic differences, the editions of the late 18th century became a kind of laboratory for the Yiddish language. Some nineteenth-century editions contain textual variations that bear the impact of Hasidism or the Haskalah. During that century several parts of the Tzenah Urenah were translated into other languages or made the object of various kinds of adaptations. Complete translations into English and Hebrew first appeared in the twentieth century.