The Synagogue Sermon
The Rabbi's sermon has seen many changes throughout Jewish history.
Reprinted from The Jewish Religion: A Companion, published by Oxford University Press.
That sermons were delivered in the synagogue, especially on Sabbaths and the festivals, from early Rabbinic times, is attested in numerous Midrashim. It would seem that the later Midrashim had their origin in sermons, although the Midrashim themselves bear all the marks of literary productions in their own right.
The usual preaching method, until the modern period, was to take scriptural verses out of context and to apply them to the religious and ethical questions of the preacher's time. This method of scriptural application became known as derush (from a root meaning 'to search' or 'to enquire') and the sermon became known as a derashah (from the same root, as is the word Midrash itself). Preachers were known as Darshanim or Maggidim ('Speakers' or 'Tellers').
Again until modern times, the function of preaching belonged not to the Rabbi of a town but to the special class of preachers, usually learned men but not necessarily well versed in the practical Halakah.
In Eastern Europe, Maggidim would wander from town to town to preach in the synagogue, attracting the masses by their popular, homely expositions liberally sprinkled with proverbs, folk-tales, and illustrations from the daily life of their audiences.
Collections were published of the sermons of the more renowned preachers and these were used as guides for preachers everywhere.
A New Kind of Sermon
Although the historian Leopold Zunz, in his famous work, Gottesdienstliche Vortraeger der Juden, published in 1832, sought to demonstrate, when challenged by the Prussian government (under the influence of Orthodox groups who saw sermons in the vernacular as the beginnings of Reform), that preaching is an ancient Jewish institution, the traditional derashah took, in Germany, the new form of the Predigt, as it was called.
The new type of sermon was more formal and in the vernacular, and it became a regular part of the service. The modern sermon is also based on a scriptural verse, usually taken from the portion of the weekly Torah reading, but treats a particular theme in systematic fashion and its aim is more one of edification rather than instruction.
Alexander Altmann has shown how the early German preachers consciously modeled their sermons on the patterns of Christian homiletics and how they would even use the famous Christian preachers as guides to sermon-construction.
At a later stage, opposition to this reliance on Gentile forms led preachers such as Isaac Noah Mannheimer and Adolf Jellinek to use much more Rabbinic material in their sermons.