Scribal arts and sacred texts.
A Nascent Movement
The Bible mentions "families of scribes" (I Chronicles 2:5), which were probably schools and guilds where an individual learned through apprenticeship. Modern scribes also learn through individual apprenticeship and receive certification through a professional organization. Interestingly, this is mirrored today in a nascent informal movement of traditionalist women learning this sacred craft secretly and teaching it to each other. This widening of the circle of scribes indicates its central importance for modern Judaism.
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