Lying With A Life At Stake
Some have argued that lying is never permissible. What if a human life hung in the balance?
Reprinted with permission from The Book of Jewish Values, published by Bell Tower.
Some of the greatest figures in Christian theology and Western thought have argued that lying is always wrong, even when life is at stake.
Saint Augustine, the great fourth-century Church Father (in his treatise “On Lying”) argued that lying bars one from eternal life; hence, it makes no sense to give up one’s place in the next world to save another life if it means having to lie: “Does he not speak most perversely who says that one person ought to die spiritually, so another may live? …Since, then, eternal life is lost by lying, a lie may never be told for the preservation of the temporal life of another.”
Some fifteen hundred years after Saint Augustine, Immanuel Kant, in an effort to establish a universally binding secular ethic, also condemned all lying, whatever the circumstances. Thus, Kant taught (in his Critique of Practical Reason) that if a man fleeing for his life is hiding in our house, and the would-be murderer asks whether “our friend who is pursued by him has taken refuge in our house,” we are forbidden to lie or mislead him.
In Judaism’s view, one who would tell a truth that would enable a would-be murderer to kill an innocent person would bear a grave moral responsibility. Kant had a low regard for Judaism and so had no interest in what it taught. However, he was a German, and his thinking made a particularly deep and enduring impact in his native country. As philosopher Sissela Bok notes (in her book, Lying), a German ship captain who was hiding Jews from the Nazis, and was confronted by a Nazi vessel whose commander demanded to know if any Jews were aboard, would have been forbidden, by Kant’s reasoning, from lying to the Nazis.
Truth, as Judaism teaches, is a high value but not an absolute one.
The first chapter of Exodus describes the effort by Pharaoh to eliminate the Israelites by drowning their firstborn male babies in the Nile. He appoints Shifra and Puah, two midwives, to carry out this task. But the midwives fear God and, instead of killing the babies, help save them.
Pharaoh, distressed to learn that his murderous campaign is being thwarted, summons the midwives and demands to know why they have disobeyed his order. The Bible tells us that the two women tell Pharaoh a lie: “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women: they are vigorous. Before the midwives can come to them, they have given birth” (Exodus 1:19).
Did the Bible feel the midwives’ response was cowardly, and dislike the fact that they lied?