Israel's most famous and successful spy.
Contributions to the Six Day War
Overlooking Israel, the Golan Heights was a vital part of Syrian defense strategies, as it was nearly insusceptible to Israeli attacks. Only top Syrian military staff were allowed there to view the defenses that were set up, but Cohen succeeded in visiting every defense position, brought by senior staff officers. Perhaps the most famous contribution Cohen made to Israeli strategic defense was his seemingly-innocent suggestion that planting trees around Syrian fortification would provide foliage cover and shade for troops. The Syrian army officer who heard this idea agreed, and acted on it. When Israel was taking the Golan Heights in 1967, the IDF was able to use these trees to pinpoint where the Syrian defense positions were.
Between 1962 and 1965, Cohen returned to Israel to see his family only three times. On his final trip to Israel, in 1964, Cohen expressed concern over the new commander of Syrian intelligence, Colonel Ahmed Su'edani, who obviously did not like or trust him. Cohen requested to be taken off assignment, but intelligence officers convinced him to go back to Syria one final time.
By January of 1965 Syrian officials were increasingly alarmed at the obvious intelligence leak in their midst. Aided by Russian advisers with very sensitive intelligence-gathering equipment, the Syrians were able to precisely locate the site of the transmissions to the Israelis. On January 24th, 1965, Syrians raided Cohen's apartment, where he was caught in the middle of a transmission.
Eli Cohen was tried in a brief military tribunal, but was denied any defense. On May 8, 1965, the sentence was handed down at a press conference--Eli Cohen was to be hanged. Despite pleas from leaders and diplomats, including Pope Paul VI, there was to be no appeal. Ten days later Cohen was allowed to write a letter to his wife, and meet briefly with a Rabbi before he was hanged in front of a crowd of more than 10,000 people.
Campaign to Return His Body
Eli Cohen's remains have never been returned, and his family continues to petition the Syrian government to release his body for burial in Israel. As recently as 2009, Cohen's family asked Pope Benedict XVI to intervene on their behalf.
Cohen's devotion to his country, and his bravery in the face of his Syrian captors, has earned him the affectionate title in Israel, "Our Man in Damascus." On the 40th anniversary of his death, then-Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said that Cohen was a, "fighter who became a legend when he entered the lion's den alone." And though he did not emerge alive, his contribution to Israeli history is a vital one.
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