The Twin Wars

How the Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War shaped Israel.

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Yet even as Israel's negotiating position became stronger, the need for an agreement became less urgent. Time seemed to be on Israel's side: she was in possession of thousands of square miles of Arab territory and, as Defense Minister Moshe Dayan commented, the Arab military threat had been destroyed for a generation.

No to Peace

In September 1967, eight Arab heads of state published the Khartoum declaration: no to peace with Israel, no to recognition of Israel, no to negotiations with Israel. In the absence of a partner for peace, groups within Israel began pressing for the annexation and settlement of the territories. These voices included Menahem Begin's Gahal (later Likud) bloc, the National Religious Party, and settlement-oriented elements from within the ruling Labor movement. Even those committed to territorial compromise--among them Cabinet minister Yigal Allon--began to articulate the need to retain strategically important parts of the West Bank.

Motivated partly by security concerns, partly by the desire to up the negotiating pressure on the Arabs, and partly by the wave of religious and nationalist euphoria which swept the country with the liberation of Jerusalem and other holy sites in Judea and Samaria, the government approved settlement plans for Jerusalem, the Etzion bloc, the Jordan Valley and the Golan Heights.

But at the same time, the Six Day War brought about a demographic shift that would ultimately pose the biggest challenge to the vision of undivided Israel. The war's conquests brought over one million Palestinian residents of the West Bank and Gaza under Israeli control.

The Yom Kippur War

The optimism--and perhaps hubris--of the post-'67 period was abruptly shattered by the outbreak of war on Yom Kippur 1973. The surprise attack by Egypt and Syria, the failure of military intelligence and the army's lack of readiness, the near defeat and the desperate fight to rebuff the invasion, all stood in stark contrast to Israel's previous triumphs. The war forced Israelis to revisit their feelings of vulnerability and to recognize the reality of the ongoing military threat. Israel's leaders were exposed as arrogant and fallible; Premiere Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan were forced to resign and, in the elections of 1977, the Labor party lost power for the first time in Israel's history.

The Yom Kippur War also contributed to the polarization of Israeli politics. The bursting of Israel's security bubble and the loss of faith in the military intensified the need for a diplomatic horizon and revitalized the peace camp, developments which ultimately led to the Camp David Accords with Egypt in 1978. At the same time, the perceived need to strengthen Israel's hold on the territories in the face of Arab aggression spawned the religious Gush Emunim settlement movement and brought about the Likud's eventual rise to power.

Then & Now

The dynamics triggered by the twin wars of 1967 and 1973 continue to shape Israel's political discourse today. The aftermath of the Second Lebanon War in the summer of 2006 evokes the specter of Yom Kippur, but the decision to go to war resonated with the spirit of 1967: the idea that a short, decisive military campaign could transform Israel's diplomatic and security situation. The Sharon and Olmert governments' pre-Lebanon belief in unilateralism--reflected in the disengagement from Gaza and the (abortive) Convergence plans for further unilateral withdrawals in the West Bank--stemmed from the tradition of the Six Day War, just as the current hesitant steps back towards the negotiating table reflect the sober attitude of the post-'73 period.

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Matt Plen

Matt Plen is the Chief Executive of Masorti Judaism in the UK. He has taught and trained educators in diverse institutions in Israel, the UK and the USA and is currently researching his doctorate on Critical Pedagogy and Jewish Ideologies of Social Justice.