Sukkot Theology and Themes
The holiday of Sukkot begins on the 15th day of the month of Tishrei. Known in rabbinic literature as Ha-Chag--"the holiday"--the themes of Sukkot are clearly of high importance in Jewish theology.
This holiday is unique in that it is the only time Jews are instructed to build a structure as part of their observance. Each household traditionally builds or has access to a sukkah, a temporary shelter constructed only for the holiday. Lasting one week, the holiday integrates a wide range of symbols and concepts.
Most notable is the sukkah itself. It is necessary that the sukkah be a temporary structure. Although the sukkah’s origin is in the temporary dwellings in which agricultural workers would reside during the hectic autumnal harvest season, Judaism has identified these huts with the dwellings of the biblical Israelites as they wandered in the desert for 40 years after the exodus from Egypt. In this manner, these temporary dwellings return us to a different time in our development and remind us of our journey to nationhood.
While traveling in the desert, the Israelites were not wandering aimlessly from place to place. As a young Jewish nation, they were trustingly following God as they ventured forth. Dependant entirely on God for food, safety, and direction, Sukkot is viewed as a beautiful and joyous time of bonding and loyalty between Jews and God. The flimsy sukkah structures return today's Jews to this time in their history and to a celebration of devotion and dependence on God, who nurtures and cares for human beings.
The sukkah is traditionally decorated with varieties of fruit. The fruit reminds us of the annual fruit harvest that was celebrated at this time. The Torah commands that on Sukkot, one of the three pilgrimage holidays, all Israelites were to bring their first fruit harvest to a national assembly. During Temple times the nation would gather together at the Temple to celebrate the harvest. Thus, once again ancient Israelites were traveling and dwelling in temporary homes.
There is also a commandment in the Torah for each person to take the fruit of a "goodly tree," later interpreted as a fruit called an etrog (citron). Along with this fruit, one must collect certain tree branches and rejoice before God. We therefore take a palm branch and connect to it myrtle twigs and willow branches. There are beautiful narratives in rabbinic literature that discuss the symbolic images of the etrog and lulav (as the combination of the palm, myrtle, and willow is collectively known). They include parallels to the Jewish matriarchs and patriarchs as well as to the body and soul of each individual Jew.