Sukkot In the Community
The lulav and etrog are picked up and blessed for the first time during the synagogue services at the beginning of a section of prayers called Hallel or Psalms of Praise (Psalms 113-118). The lulav and etrog are held in one’s hands throughout the joyous singing and recitation of these psalms and are waved in the six directions at three different points in the chanting of these psalms.
The lulav and etrog are set aside during the reading of the Torah but picked up again toward the end of the morning synagogue services for a unique ritual called the Hoshanot. The Hebrew word hoshanah means “please save (us)” and is a series of as many as seven liturgical poems calling upon God to rescue and redeem the Jewish people, primarily by sending rain. As an agriculturally based community in the land of Israel, the Jewish people were especially dependent upon the regular, seasonal rainfall to ensure sufficient crops for the community to survive. Because Sukkot falls immediately prior to the beginning of the traditional rainy season in the Middle East, it was considered especially appropriate to petition God for rain at this time. To demonstrate the sincerity and seriousness of the worshippers, the Ark is opened and a Torah is removed from the ark. In a further bid to gain divine favor, everyone carrying a lulav and etrog joins a procession that circles the inside of the sanctuary of the synagogue, chanting and waving his or her lulav and etrog. This procession circling the sanctuary is called a hakkafah (“circling”). A different hoshanah prayer is recited every day of the festival.
The seventh day of Sukkot is a semi-holiday in its own right. Still counted among the days of hol hamo’ed (intermediate days of the festival), this day is called, Hoshanah Rabbah or the “great hoshanah.” Hoshanah Rabbah was viewed by the rabbis as a mini-Yom Kippur, a day on which the entire Jewish community is judged by God to be worthy or not of the seasonal rains. All seven hoshanot prayers are recited in seven hakkafot, or processions, around the sanctuary. At the conclusion of this, a special ritual is conducted in which the branches of the willow are struck upon the ground. This is a symbolic attempt to rid ourselves of any remaining sins (the leaves representing these transgressions) that might influence God’s decision to send the seasonal rains. For many Jews, Hoshanah Rabbah is the last day one shakes the lulav and etrog and dwells in the Sukkah (though a number of traditional Jews continue to dwell in the sukkah through Shemini Atzeret). On the evening following Hoshanah Rabbah begins the festival of Shemini Atzeret.
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